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Electrochemistry - Different types of Batteries

Prepared by N. R. Mahalingam

Property
Leclanche Cell
Mercury Button cell
Lead Storage Battery
Anode
Zinc container
Zinc amalgamated with mercury
Spongy Lead
Cathode
Graphite rod in contact with MnO2
HgO mixed with graphite
Lead Plate bearing PbO2
Electrolyte
NH4Cl and ZnCl2 in water
Paste of KOH and ZnO
38% by mass of H2SO4 with density 1.2g/mL
Emf of the 
cell
1.5 V
1.35V
2V (usually sx cells are combined in series to produce 12 volt)
Oxidation
at Anode
Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq)+2e-
Zn(s) + 2OH- (aq) ZnO(s) + H2O(l)+ 2e-
Pb(s)  Pb2+(aq)+2e-
Pb2+(aq) + SO42- (aq) PbSO4 (s)
Reduction
at Cathode

2 NH4+(aq) + 2e-  2NH3(aq) + H2(g)
H2(g) + 2MnO2(s) → Mn2O3(s) + H2O (l)

HgO(s) + H2O (l) + 2e- Hg(l) + 2OH- (aq)
PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2e- Pb2+ (aq) + 2H2O
Pb2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) PbSO4(s)
Overall
reaction
 Zn (s) + 2NH4+ (aq) + 2 MnO2(s)
Zn2+ (aq) + Mn2O3 (s) + H2O(l)+2NH3
Zn(s) + HgO(s) ZnO(s)+ Hg(l)
Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq)
2 PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
Uses

It has a higher capacity and longer life. Used in pacemakers, electronic watches, cameras etc.,
Used in automobiles. trains, inverters etc.,
Type
Battery  (Use and Throw)
Battery  (Use and Throw)
Secondary Battery
Property
Lithium Ion Battery
Hydrogen Oxygen Fuel cell
Anode
Porous Graphite
Porous graphite electrode containing Ni and NiO serves as inert electrodes
Cathode
Transition metal oxide such as CoO2
Electrolyte
Lithium salt in an organic solvent
Aqueous KOH maintained at 200º C and 20 - 40 atm
Emf of the 
cell


Oxidation
at Anode
Li (s) Li+ (aq) + e-
2H2(g) + 4OH- (aq) 4 H2O(l) + 4e-
Reduction
at Cathode
Li+ + CoO2 (s) + e- LiCoO2 (s)
O2 (g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e-   4OH- (aq)
Overall
reaction
Li (s) + CoO2 (s)LiCoO2 (s)
2H2(g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O(l)
Uses
Used in Cellular phones, Laptops, Computers, Digital cameras etc.,
They are a clean, reliable source of power to cities, towns and buildings. These fuel cells are also used for back-up and remote power applications including remote weather stations and rural locations.
Type
Secondary  Battery
Secondary Battery







N. R. Mahalingam, Lecturer, District Institute of Education and Training Palayampatti










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